Clothes Make the Man

America prides itself on the assurance of equality.  Yet despite its secession from royal powers and the notion of inescapable hierarchies prevalent in its old-world contemporaries America in a very real way does maintain class distinctions.  Distinctions nominated not by breed but monetary accumulation and self-presentation.  The American Dream promises its citizens that its social strata is traversable, that one may rise from rags to riches.  While one’s exact standing in America can be inexact, due to the rise and fall of personal fortunes, a clear indicator of one’s class has always been the clothes on our backs.  It is nearly impossible to pass oneself off as rich or even well to do without the proper coat.  Throughout the semester this idea that clothes make the man has reoccurred in a number of texts.  Through characters like Frederick Douglass, Lily Bart and Jay Gatsby it has been made clear that having the right clothes, or clothes at all, can decide your current social standing, the fate of your future or even redefine your past.

            Frederick Douglas was born a slave in the American South yet became one of its finest historical figures.  Lily Bart grew up in New York’s upper-crust and ended her life poor and alone.  Jay Gatsby, or rather James Gatz, hailed from North Dakota and became a mysterious celebrity of New York.  All of these characters owe their rise or fall in part to the clothes they had.  While Douglass began his life basically naked and Gatz so poor he had to run from home Lily Bart on the other hand started her life in luxury and was defined by her gowns.  Both Douglass and Gatsby began their lives with almost nothing.  It was by luck and aspiration these characters were able to rise.  When James Gatz saved the life of Dan Cody he was able to begin his new life with the clothes Cody gave him and thus Jay Gatsby was born.  When Frederick Douglass recalls his first pair of trousers he says, “The thought of owning a pair of trousers was great indeed!  It was almost a sufficient motive, not only to make me take off what would be called by pigdrovers the mange, but the skin itself.  I went at it in good earnest, working for the first time with the hope of reward.” (Douglass 40) For both Gatsby and Douglass their fine new clothes were to them this new skin, allowing them to redefine who they were as people in their own self-identification and their presentation to others.        

            Lily Bart and James Gatz were in a curious way slave to their appearances.  Because Lily was conditioned into this life of luxury her life was dominated by a need to maintain the appearance of wealth to win a proper suitor.  If she had began her life like Selden’s cousin Gerty she may have settled on happiness in other pursuits.  But like how James Gatz initially relied upon his army uniform as a means of winning Daisy’s heart, because it masked his personal fortune, Lily Bart likewise relied upon her fine dresses in order to maintain the illusion of wealth and win herself a suitor.  Through their appearances Gatsby and Bart were able to project themselves as these fine commodities deserving the respect of other rich people who had a taste for the finer things.  However as Lily struggled to maintain her standing she fell into poverty and lost almost everything, grasping on to a few fine dresses in hopes of one day re-entering the circle of the upper-crust.  While Gatsby on the other hand amassed more and more fine clothes his reckless pursuit of a dream he realized however that higher class did not ensure higher ideals or senses of morality and this final superficial disillusionment was his undoing.     

            It is not difficult to see the implications of clothes in direct relation to class today.  It is in fact perhaps easier than ever.  Advertising and marketing campaigns telling you who you are or what you can be are all pervading.  Designer goods and the accouterment of the driving forces of capitalism are engineered into our citizens.  The individual in today’s society is easily summed up by the name on their purse, the color of their watch or the brand on their chest.  Most people aspire to be considered upper-class but the ambiguous question remains of whether the upper-class just look better or are really better people.


Bartleby the “Success”

John Owen Ford
I have written my paper on Herman Melville’s Bartleby and on specifically determining why although Bartleby seemed at first to comply with Franklin’s prerequisites of success, industry and frugality, Bartleby was not only unsuccessful but entirely unsavory. The reason for pursuing this cause is to figure out where the desires of the individual and the rules of society may find a middle ground. A life lived for industry and the accumulation of wealth as an end in itself lacks experiences fundamental to a healthy human life. Furthermore a life of revelry lived selfishly for only personal enjoyment likewise lacks an important element of human behavior. The individual as a member of the society must be at once guaranteed certain freedoms and enforce certain rules. It is in keeping to a path between these two extremes that a true American Dream can reach fruition and a “success” be made. It is important to discover this leyline of purpose so that the life one chooses to live is both enjoyed and respected. Through an understanding Bartleby’s faults and strengths the reader may allow himself to question the assumptions they and society possess in order to live a more fulfilling life.

The House of Mirth: Sparking Overview

N.Y.C. Street Rat




The House of Mirth: Sparking Overview

1. Context


Edith Wharton, author of The House of Mirth, was born to an extremely prominent family in New York CityWharton was a prolific writer and the first woman to win the Pulitzer prize.  Born in 1862 as Edith Newbold Jones, Wharton grew up within the upper crust of society.  Her family had acquired their fortunes in profitable endeavors such as real estate and banking and are somewhat of American Royalty.  Her ancestors were in charge of the Rensselaer colonial estate in New York that was basically a rural feudal society.  The affluence her family maintained is evidenced by the phrase “Keeping up with the Joneses” which is believed to originate from a reference to their standing.  As a child Wharton spent six years travelling Europe with her family until she returned to New York at the age…

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